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    The Start of the French Revolution: The History and Legacy of the Seminal Events that Began the Uprising in France

    6-04-2021, 23:03 Bo0mB0om
    Книги журналы
    The Start of the French Revolution: The History and Legacy of the Seminal Events that Began the Uprising in France
    English | July 7, 2020 | ASIN: B08CMNR2TB | 101 pages | AZW3,PDF | 7.60 MB


    *Includes pictures
    *Includes a bibliography for further reading
    *Includes a table of contents

    As one of the seminal social revolutions in human history, the French Revolution holds a unique legacy, especially in the West. The early years of the Revolution were fueled by Enlightenment ideals, seeking the social overthrow of the caste system that gave the royalty and aristocracy decisive advantages over the lower classes. But history remembers the French Revolution in a starkly different way, as the same leaders who sought a more democratic system while out of power devolved into establishing an incredibly repressive tyranny of their own once they acquired it. The French Revolution was a turbulent period that lasted several years, and one of the most famous events of the entire revolution came near the beginning with the Tennis Court Oath. By July of 1788, King Louis XVI agreed to call the Estates-General, a large, traditional legislative body, for the first time since 1614. The country's finances, already quite tenuous, reached a crisis stage in August 1788 as France faced bankruptcy.

    In March 1789, the electoral method was set. While the nobility and clergy would hold direct elections, the much larger Third Estate would elect representatives from each district who would then attend larger assemblies to elect their official representatives to the Third Estate of the Estates-General.

    Finally, in the spring of 1789, Louis XVI summoned the Estates-General. They were to convene at Versailles on April 27, but did not do so until May 5. Late elections continued into the summer as conditions around the country delayed many elections. At the same time, bread prices reached an all-time high, leading to riots throughout the country, particularly in Paris. During the formal ritual that welcomed the Estates-General on May 4, 1789, in a precursor of things to come in the following months, the Third Estate refused to kneel before the king. The deputies of the Third Estate came before the king, walking two at a time, and bowed before Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Not surprisingly, those witnessing the parade of the Estates-General had hoped for reform but came to expect that the Estates-General would serve as a tool of the administration.

    Throughout the day on July 13, 1789, rumors of an impending attack by the French army spread through the city of Paris. A large mob formed, first taking some 28,000 rifles from the Invalides, the veterans' hospital in the city, and in search of powder for the rifles, the mob stormed the Bastille, an old and largely unused prison in the city. While the Bastille, with its imposing turrets and fort-like construction, was a symbol of oppression, their intent was less political and more practical; they needed ammunition, and the prison was under relatively light guard with only a few prisoners.

    The guards first attempted to negotiate with the group, hoping to buy time for extra troops to arrive, but finally the guards fired on the mob when negotiations failed. Hundreds in the mob were killed, and when additional troops arrived, rather than defending the Bastille, they joined with the mob, providing canons and soldiering skills to ensure the success of the people over the Bastille guards. Late in the afternoon, the Bastille guards surrendered and were killed by the mob, while future revolutionaries like Robespierre supported the actions of the mob as a reflection of the will of the people, even when they killed the governor of the Bastille.

    Louis eventually agreed to pull the troops back on the afternoon of July 15, and after some of his troops had joined the mob at the Bastille, Louis XVI now understood that he could not trust or rely upon the army. When he asked if it was a revolt, he was famously told that it was a revolution, and as news of the violence spread throughout the country, revolutionary groups took control of many city governments. The French Revolution had truly begun.
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